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India-China bilateral relations

Both counties play a  major role in the economic growth of the world. But, the border dispute with China is posing a major test to the India-China bilateral relations.

_Rajan Pathak

India-China bilateral relations
India-China relations were minimal and confined to some trade before the mid 20th century. And the interaction began after India's independence in 1947. This relation initiates the external affairs and scholars throughout both countries.  At that time Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru was prime minister of India. He and Zhou signed the Panchseel treaty on 29 April 1954 for the peaceful co-existence of both countries. In this way, India acknowledged Chinese rule in Tibet as mutual non-aggression, mutual non-interference,  mutual respect for each other's territorial integrity and sovereignty, equality, and mutual benefits.

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But In 1962, China's People's Liberation Army invaded India in Ladakh, and across the McMahon Line in the then North-East Frontier Agency. After the conflict, relations were in a freeze.  Further, the relationship of both countries became disputed after two more military conflicts - in 1967 and in 1987. After that, Both countries have steadily established military infrastructure along with border areas. But Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi visited the landmark in 1988 began a phase of improvement in bilateral relations. India-China relations normalized through the regular exchange of high-level visits.

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And In 1993, the signing of an Agreement on the maintenance of Peace and Tranquility along the Line of Actual Control (LAC) on the India-China Border Areas during Prime Minister Narasimha Rao’s visit reflected the growing stability and substance in bilateral relation.
While on the other side China is already involved in water-sharing disputes of Brahmaputra. It plans to build several dams on the upper reaches of the Brahmaputra. The Brahmaputra, which originates as Tsangpo in Tibet, is one of the major water resources in India’s north-east. Especially, it is known as a source for irrigation and industry.

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It flared up of the Doklam dispute in 2017 when the Chinese were trying to construct a road in the area, and Indian troops, in aid of their Bhutanese counterparts, objected to it, resulting in a 73-day stand-off.
And till now the biggest sticking point in relations, border disputes between the two countries have existed for many years, and remain unresolved. And recently the tensions between these two countries rose after Chinese forces had moved into a disputed section of the shared Himalayan border. This incident again escalated the unresolved tensions among both the nations. This resulted in deadly clashes in the border area on the night of 15 June 2020 at least after 45 years. Both sides had suffered casualties.
After minding the fact that both counties play a  major role in the economic growth of the world. The best solution to the Indo-Chinese border dispute is that China and India should make some "constructive, operable, and forward-looking" suggestions to move forward to achieve an early solution to the dispute and to maintain peace and tranquillity at the border.  Otherwise, the other solution is very dangerous which can abolish the origin of both two nations.

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